The Direct Ophthalmoscope

The direct ophthalmoscope is useful for viewing ocular media opacities and examining the optic disc and posterior pole. The image of the fundus is magnified approximately x15. It is extremely difficult to adequately examine the peripheral retina using direct ophthalmoscopy, even when the pupil is widely dilated. As with all examination techniques the key to direct ophthalmoscopy is to have a structured routine:

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