Hypertensive Retinopathy
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Systemic hypertension is associated with retinal changes depending on the severity and duration. Early signs of hypertensive retinopathy are chiefly diffuse and focal narrowing of the retinal arteries. More advanced disease is reflected by abnormal vascular permeability leading to retinal haemorrhages and exudates.

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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