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The Direct Ophthalmoscope
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The direct ophthalmoscope is useful for viewing ocular media opacities and examining the optic disc and posterior pole. The image of the fundus is magnified approximately x15. It is extremely difficult to adequately examine the peripheral retina using direct ophthalmoscopy, even when the pupil is widely dilated. As with all examination techniques the key to direct ophthalmoscopy is to have a structured routine:

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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