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Ptosis
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Looking straight ahead, the upper lid usually hides the top 1-2mm of the cornea. A ptosis is when the upper lid covers more of the cornea and sits in a lower position. An abnormal drooping of the eyelid can be caused by several conditions including:

  • Detachment of the levator muscle (aponeurotic)
  • Disease of the muscle itself (myogenic)
    • eg myotonic dystrophy
  • Problems with the nerve supply to the muscle (neurogenic)
    • eg myasthenia gravis, Horners syndrome, 3rd nerve palsy
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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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