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Cataract (Greek term for “waterfall”) is the term used for any opacity in the lens and represents the leading cause of preventable blindness globally. Cataracts tend to cause a gradual decline with blurred distance and/or reading vision. Lens opacities can also result in light scatter causing glare in sunlight or night driving. Less commonly central cataract affecting the visual axis may cause the individual to see ghosting or a “split image” through the affected eye (monocular diplopia). 

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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