Diabetic Maculopathy
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Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) occurs in up to 2% of patients with diabetic retinopathy. It is caused by disruption of the blood-retinal barrier at the posterior pole. Progression to DMO is associated with duration of disease, poor glycaemic control and the need for insulin in type 2 diabetes. Sustained hyperglycaemia causes a multifactorial cascade with increased vascular permeability, altered ocular blood flow, hypoxia and inflammation. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), which is stimulated by microvascular ischaemia, contributes to the inflammatory process and, in particular, increased permeability and subsequent oedema.

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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