Macular Hole
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Macular holes tend to be idiopathic and occur after the age of 60yrs. The formation of a macular hole is thought to be secondary to tangential traction of the vitreous in the macular area ie there is no actual loss of retina but the hole develops as a consequence of forces pulling the retinal tissue apart. 

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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