Extraocular Muscles
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There are 4 rectus muscles and 2 oblique muscles around each eye:

  • Medial rectus
    • Moves the eye nasally (adduction)
  • Lateral rectus
    • Moves the eye temporally (abduction)
  • Superior rectus
    • Primary action elevation, in addition secondary actions of adduction and intorsion (nasal rotation)
  • Inferior rectus
    • Primary action depression with secondary adduction and extortion (temporal rotation)
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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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