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Cover Test
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This test can be easily performed on any individual who is able to maintain fixation on a target. One eye is occluded and the opposite, uncovered eye, is observed. If there is no movement of the uncovered eye then it was aligned and fixating on the target, eg Snellen letter. However, if the uncovered eye moves to pick up fixation then there was a deviation (tropia) present.

An inward movement means the eye was exotropic and an outward movement to take up fixation implies the eye was previously turned in (esotropia). If no tropia is detected then the other eye is occluded and the test repeated.

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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