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Normal Pupillary Reflexes
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Pupil size is determined by a number of factors especially age, lighting levels and where the person is viewing. Pupils tend to get smaller (constrict, miosis) with increasing age, brighter illumination (“Light” reflex) and near vision (“Accommodative” reflex). Other influences on normal pupil size include emotion and level of alertness.

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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