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Pupil Disorders
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Evaluation of the pupils and pupillary reflexes can reveal a variety of ocular and neurological abnormalities. The consistent anatomical pathway between individuals often allows a pupil abnormality to help predict the diagnosis. Close proximity of the pupillomotor pathways to other structures can result in pupil abnormalities in conjunction with other signs eg eye movement disorder, ptosis. 

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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