Pupil Examination
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Initially evaluate the pupils in average room illumination with the patient viewing a distant target (to avoid the near accommodative reflex). Note the size of the pupils and importantly look for asymmetry (anisocoria). Subtle differences in pupil size of approximately 1mm may be physiological anisocoria, but larger variations in size are likely to have a pathological cause.

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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