Central Retinal Artery Occlusion
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A central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is characterised by sudden and severe loss of vision. Although usually caused by atherosclerosis-related thrombus in the optic nerve head, a CRAO may also be secondary to emboli eg calcific emboli from cardiac valves, cholesterol emboli originating from diseased carotid arteries, or importantly CRAO can be due to giant cell arteritis (GCA). 

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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