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Reduced vision can be caused by diseases affecting the eye eg branch retinal vein occlusion or secondary to conditions interfering with the visual pathways eg parietal lobe haemorrhage. Potential causes of reduced vision can often be established from clues in the history, including the patient’s age, previous or current ophthalmic treatments eg herpetic keratitis, iritis, pseudophakia and systemic risk factors eg diabetes, hypertension, atrial fibrillation.

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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