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Normal Visual Field
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The term visual field relates to an individual’s peripheral or “side” vision. For each eye a normal visual field extends approximately 50⁰ superiorly, 60⁰ nasally, 70⁰ inferiorly and 90⁰ temporally from central fixation. The field of vision is restricted superiorly by the upper lid and/or the bony orbital rim, and nasally by the bridge of the nose. The visual field is an inverted and reversed map of the retina, ie an image on the superior retina is seen in the inferior field, an image on the nasal retina is seen in the temporal field etc.

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Core Principles

1. Ocular Anatomy

2. Ophthalmic History

3. Measuring Visual Acuity

4. External Inspection / Eyelids

5. Everting The Eyelids

6. Anterior Segment

7. Pupillary Reflexes (and Dilatation)

8. Ocular Motility

9. Visual Fields

10. Direct Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmology in Practice

1. Red Eye Introduction

2. Red Eye Diagnosis

3. Visual Failure Introduction

4. Gradual Loss of Vision

5. Sudden Loss of Vision

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